Report and Case Studies
These two academic research papers look at how market-based instruments could have a significant impact in creating long term sustainable change in transportation, including detailed case studies from London, Paris and New York City.
- New York, London and Paris offer interesting instances of policy action at the intersection of urban climate change and sustainable transportation governance. An exploration of the underlying roots of their successes, and the limitations of the efforts, should be of interest to Canadian policy-makers at all levels of government;
- All three have taken aggressive action intended to drive a shift from automobile to alternative modes of transportation such as walking, cycling, and public transit and have had a measure of success by combining improved and expanded service provision with road re-purposing, infrastructure development, and pricing policies.
- Each, however, illustrates the challenge of managing metropolitan as opposed to regional transportation. In each city there is a distinct divide in each between the core (high population density, strong modal share for alternative modes) and suburban/exurban (lower population density, much higher reliance on automotive transportation) populations;
- This suggests that, in addition to a flexible, balanced, and integrated approach, there is a distinct need for more support (financial as well as jurisdictional) from upper levels of government as well as greater efforts to coordinate actions between levels of government;
- In order to increase policy impact in Canadian cities and address the considerable challenges, as well as the substantial local and global costs, related to intra-urban transportation Provincial and Federal governments need to develop policies and funding packages that enable more effective and innovative municipal policy intervention.